Jack McDONALD, professeur titulaire à la FUTP et à la FPTR

Master : tronc commun – Quadrimestre 1


This course examines the origins of the Anglican tradition first withinWestern Catholicism, then as an independent blend of Catholic and Protestant influences after the Reformation. The history of the English Reformation is studied in detail, since it explains everything in Anglicanism which follows. The course then looks at the two major periods of Anglican expansion outside the British Isles, first in the 18th century in North America and India, then (following the obstacles to Anglican expansion provided by the independence of the United States in 1783 and the policies of the British East India Company which restricted Christian mission in India throughout the 18th century) in Africa and Oceania in the 19th century. The close relationship between Anglicanism and the Atlantic slave trade, as well as successful Anglican pressure to abolish slavery will be studied. The subsequent development of the global Anglican Communion and its institutions will be studied. A study of three examples of modern global Anglicanism completes the course: Belgium, Rwanda and Nigeria. 


  1. The English Reformation under Henry VIII, Edward VI, Mary I and Elizabeth I
  2. What is Anglicanism?
  3. From Royal Church to Scripture–Tradition–Reason Church
  4. Being Anglican outside the English Crown – Scotland, the Thirteen Colonies and British India
  5. Anglicanism and the Caribbean – the odious history of the Anglican Slave Trade
  6. The failure of Scots and American Anglicanism in the 18th century: Anglicanism as the English and Colonial Church
  7. Two Second Winds: the Evangelical Revival and the Oxford Movement
  8. Beyond a Colonial Church – Anglican domination in Sub-Saharan Africa, Oceania and the Caribbean
  9. The Anglican Communion – What? Where? When? Why? Where to?
  10. World Anglicanism Today (1) – De Anglicaanse Kerk in België / L’Eglise anglicane en Belgique
  11. World Anglicanism Today (2) – The Church of Nigeria
  12. World Anglicanism Today (3) – L’Eglise anglicane du Rwanda


Much more extensive bibliographical support will be given during the course. These books are good, relevant texts:

  • Bethmont R., L’anglicanisme : un modèle pour le christianisme à venir ?, Paris, Labor et Fides, 2010.
  • Bulman W., Anglican Enlightenment: Orientalism, Religion and Politics in England and its Empire, 1648-1715, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2017.
  • Cranmer T., The Book of Common Prayer (several editions in the 16th century, which will be discussed in the course).
  • Dirokpa Balufuga F., Histoire de l’Eglise anglicane du Congo de ses origines à nos jours, Geneva, Presses Universitaires Européennes, 2016.
  • Glasson T., Mastering Christianity: Missionary Anglicanism and Slavery in the Atlantic, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2017
  • McDonald J. and Vandenheede J. J., De Anglicaanse Kerk, Averbode, Averbode Press, 2016.




Students will write one essay of approximately 3,000 words (excluding footnotes and bibliography) in either Dutch or French or English on a relevant title to be previously agreed with the professor. Sample essay-titles are :

  • Is Anglicanism catholic or protestant?
  • What was Elizabeth I’s religious policy?
  • How does a Church linked to the English Crown have any global appeal?
  • Outline the links between the Church of England and the Atlantic Slave Trade.
  • How did William Wilberforce interpret the biblical verses which support the institution of slavery?
  • Why are there so few Anglicans in India and so many Anglicans in Africa?
  • Discuss the life and work of Bishop John Colenso.
  • What are the differences in power and authority between the Pope and the Archbishop of Canterbury?
  • Explain why the Anglican Church of Southern Africa ordains women as deacons, priests and bishops, whereas the Anglican Church of Central Africa does not ordain women into any of the sacred orders of ministry.
  • Describe the life and work of Archbishop Desmond Tutu.
  • Outline the history of the Anglican Church in Belgium.
  • The five largest of the 41 Anglican provinces (Nigeria, Uganda, England, Kenya, Southern Africa) are all English-speaking. How and why is Anglicanism growing in the French-speaking world (Congo-Kinshasa, Canada, Haiti, Madagascar, etc)?
  • What is the future of the Anglican Communion?



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